PRELIMINARY REMARKS and LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
GENEALOGICAL TABLES AND LISTS.
PART I. GENEALOGICAL TABLES OF RULING AND NOBLE HOUSES.
A. The British Empire.
Table 1Houses of Tudor in England and of Stewart in Scotland. (The Tudor and the Stewart Succession.)
C. The Empire and Austria.
" 43(2) Simmern line.
D. The Netherlands.
G. Portugal and Brazil.
H. Sweden and Norway.
J. Poland, Hungary and Transylvania.
L. Turkey and the Balkan States.
PART II. LISTS OF SPIRITUAL PRINCES, ELECTED SOVEREIGNS, ETC.
PART III. LISTS OF PARLIAMENTS, GENERAL COUNCILS, ETC.
THE series of Tables and Lists here supplied consists, in the first instance, of Genealogical Tables of the sovereign families of European and certain other countries, together with Lists of elected potentates, within the period treated in The Cambridge Modern History. To these are added Genealogical Tables of certain noble houses, with Lists of chief ministers of great States, and of governors of important dependencies and colonies, within the same period. Finally, Lists are given of English (and British) Parliaments and of Imperial Diets, together with one or two lists of a special kind adverted to below.
These Tables and Lists are primarily intended as aids in the use of The Cambridge Modern History ; and no pretence is made that every one of them is complete in itself. It is, however, hoped that they will be found to supply the information likely to be required by a large proportion of students of modern history, and that no personage of any historical importance has been passed by in the table or list where his or her name ought to find a place. The Tables and Lists should throughout be used in conjunction with the General Index.
Among the Genealogical Tables are included those of various families which were prominent in European Succession questions, or took a leading part in the civil and religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Room has been found for Tables of certain other families of which various members are not easily identifiable in the usual books of reference Thus, several notable Irish clans are given. On the other hand, it has not been thought necessary to include Tables of wellknown houses in the English and the Scottish nobility, which may be traced without difficulty in peerages or other handbooks. The Howard, Douglas, and Campbell families have, however, been exceptionally introduced, in order to draw attention to their political alliances ; and, on much the same grounds, certain of the great ministerial families of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries have been included. The Reding Table, which has been placed by the side of that of the De Retz family for the sake of convenience only, is intended to show a connexion not usually noticed.
As to order of sequence, the Tables and Lists have, so far as possible, been arranged under the heads of the countries to which they severally relate, beginning in each division with the British Empire. Here, the governors of the more important colonies only are given, the lists beginning ordinarily from the date when representative or responsible ministerial government was first set on foot in the several colonies.
In the case of the German Genealogical Tables selection has not been easy, owing to the large number of sovereign families ; so far as possible, preference has been given to those of which prominent members are mentioned in the History. The Spanish Tables likewise required much compression, owing to exigencies of space. The identification of individuals is peculiarly difficult here, occasionally in consequence of a form of Spanish pride, which showed itself in the systematic suppression, in family genealogies, of members of the family who had " disgraced " it. Spanish titles usually descended to daughters as well as to sons; and records often only date from the creation of the Grandees of Spain onwards.
An enumeration of the works used in the compilation of the Genealogical Tables and for certain of the Lists would be in some respects misleading, but it may be of service to the student to direct his attention, among more recent publications, to A. Cohn's revised edition of T. G. Voigtel's Stammtafeln der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, of which unfortunately only Vol. i (Germany and the Netherlands) has appeared (Brunswick, 1871) ; to Fernández de Bethencourt's Historia genealógica y heráldica de la Monarquía Española (Vols, i-viii, Madrid, 1897-1910, in progress) ; to Burgos' Blazon de España (Madrid, 1853-60); and to P. Litta's Famiglie Celebri Italiane (Milan, 1819 sqq., in progress). J. Hübner's venerable Genealogische Tabellen, 4 vols. (1733-66) with Supplements (Copenhagen, 1822-4), have been put largely under contribution, together with Koch's Tables Généalogiques des Maisons souveraines de l'Europe (Strassburg, 1780), especially useful for Italy and France, and L. Moréri's Grand Dictionnaire historique, particularly in the Spanish edition, 8 vols., Paris, 1753.
The list of English Parliaments has been compiled from the data in the Journals of the two Houses (which often supplement each other), the Statutes of the Realm, and the Calendars of State Papers, compared with C. H. Parry's The Parliaments and Councils of England (1839) and other authorities.
The List of Congresses and Conferences has been confined mainly to formal gatherings of plenipotentiaries of the chief European States, or of particular States negotiating with one another as to terms of peace and other objects of common interest ; but a few meetings between sovereigns mentioned in the earlier portions of this History, and a few meetings of representatives of particular opinions or interests in recent times, have been exceptionally included.
The List of Leagues and Alliances is essentially a selected list. It might, of course, have been extended almost indefinitely in many periods of Modern History between the fifteenth and the twentieth century ; the guiding consideration has in each case been the relative historical importance of the league or alliance mentioned, and its consequent mention in this work. Confederations of States formed on the basis of a written constitution have been consistently omitted.
No List of General Councils has been inserted, the number of Councils acknowledged as such by the Western Church at large from the fifteenth century onwards being so small that an enumeration of them seemed unnecessary. On the other hand, a List of Secularised Bishoprics seemed desirable, in view of the difficulty in following the main territorial changes involved. It has not however proved possible to include the large list of Abbots and Abbesses of princely rank ; the dates of the secularisation of their dominions may easily be ascertained from C. Wolff's Die unmittelbaren Theile des ehemaligen römisch-deutschen Kaiserreiches, etc. (Berlin, 1873), or from other sources.
The Lists of Congresses and Conferences and of Leagues and Alliances are expressly intended to be selections only ; from the former, Religious Colloquies have been excluded.
Finally, the List of Universities has been restricted to Universities proper ; single Faculties as well as University Colleges, Academies, and similar institutions providing higher instruction being, for want of space, excluded. The list does not include Universities founded before 1450. Among the Universities of the United States of America, those are enumerated which report to the United States Bureau of Education and are included in its lists. Some of the more important Academies and Societies founded for the advance of learning and research are mentioned in Chapter xxiii of Vol. v of this History.
Titles borne and offices held by persons mentioned in the Tables or Lists have been inserted only in so far as they seemed necessary for the purpose of identification. Fuller descriptions will often be found in the General Index, or in the Indexes of particular volumes.
The spelling of names conforms so far as possible to the rules adopted in the compilation of the General Index, in view of the precedents set by the History itself. Christian names are Anglicised or left in their foreign form as in the Indem and the History, and foreign surnames are spelt as they are spelt there. Titles are given in English where English equivalents exist ; in the case of French titles, they are given in French (Due, etc.) from the French Revolution onwards, when they ceased to be territorial and became honorific only.
In the Genealogical Tables,
Black type is used for crowned heads, Emperors and Kings, but not for those incidentally mentioned (e.g. as married) in Tables of other Houses.
Small capitals are used for succession of minor territorial potentates, as Electors, Archdukes, etc., and for titles of a branch line in the table, in brackets.
Explanatory indications (of various kinds) are given in italics.
Dates of accession are given only when necessary to avoid confusion; date of death alone is given when succession went from father to son, or from brother to brother, or is obvious without a date of accession.
A reference to another table (see e.g. Table 100) signifies that a line not shown in the Table containing the reference continues in the Table referred to ; or that there is some other special reason for the reference.
In the Tables and Lists use has been made of the following
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS.
" Count, Countess
" Duke, Duchess
" Earl, Countess
" Grand Duke
" Lieutenant-Go vernor
" Marquis or Margrave
" Prince, Princess
" for son
" for Secretary
" sine prole (i.e. legitima), only inserted when some importance attaches to the fact
" widow, widower
if placed next to the name of a person, signifies the ordinal among his or her marriages of that noted in the table (e.g. Henry VIII(6) = (3)Cath.Parr).
If placed above a name, (1) (2) indicates child of first or second marriage,
1,9 (ital.) above name indicates order of birth (used where this is altered in the order of printing, for the sake of convenience)
"4 generations (and so with other numbers)
" lapse of several generations, not specified
descendants not here shown
enclosing title, signifies, in the Tables, that this was acquired after marriage ; enclosing a lower title, it means that this is the title generally used ; in the Lists, that the date of its acquisition was after that of appointment to the office in question
THE POPES FROM 1447
1447 Mar.-1405 Mar. Nicholas V (Thomas of Sarzana).
1456 Ap.-1458 Aug. Calixtus III (Alfonso Borgia).
1458 Aug.-1464 Aug. Pius II (Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini).
1464 Aug.-1471 July Paul II (Pietro Barbo).
1471 Aug.-1484 Aug. Sixtus IV (Francesco délia Rovere).
1484 Aug.-1492 July Innocent VIII (Giambattista Cibò).
1492 Aug.-1503 Aug. Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia).
1503 Sept.-Oct. Pius III (Francesco Todeschini (Piccolomini)).
1503 Nov.-1513 Feb. Julius II (Giulio della Rovere).
1513 Mar.-1521 Dec. Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici).
1522 Jan.-1523 Sept. Adrian VI (Adrian Boyers (of Utrecht)).
1523 Nov.-1534 Sept. Clement VII (Giulio de' Medici).
1534 Oct.-1549 Nov. Paul III (Alessandro Farnese).
1550 Feb.-1555 Mar. Julius III (Giovanni Maria del Monte).
1555 Ap. Marcellus II (Marcello Cervini).
1555 May-1559 Aug. Paul IV (Giovanni Pietro Caraffa).
1559 Dec.-1565 Dec. Pius IV (Gian-Angelo de' Medici).
1566 Jan.-1572 May Pius V (Michèle Ghislieri).
1672 May-1585 Ap. Gregory XIII (Ugo Bnoncompagno).
1685 Ap.-1590 Aug. Sixtus V (Felix Peretti (Card. Montalto)).
1690 Sept. Urban VII (Giambattista Castagna).
1590 Dec.-1591 Oct. Gregory XIV (Niccolö Sfondrato).
1591 Oct.-Dec. Innocent IX (Gian-Antonio Facchinetto).
1592 Jan.-1605 Mar. Clement VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini).
1605 Ap. Leo XI (Alessandro Ottavio de' Medici).
1605 May-1621 Jan. Paul V (Gamillo Borghese).
1621 Feb.-1623 July Gregory XV (Alessandro Ludovisi).
1623 Aug.-1644 July Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini).
1644 Sept.-1655 Jan. Innocent X (Giambattista Pamfili).
1655 Ap.-1667 May Alexander VII (Fabio Chigi).
1667 June-1669 Dec. Clement IX (Giulio Rospigliosi).
1670 Ap.-1676 July Clement X (Giambattista Altieri).
1676 Sept.-1689 Aug. Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi).
1689 Oct.-1691 Feb. Alexander VIII (Pietro Ottobuoni).
1691 July-1700 Sept. Innocent XII (Antonio Pignatelli).
1700 Nov.-1721 Mar. Clement XI (Gianfrancesco Albano).
1721 May-1724 Mar. Innocent XIII (Michelangelo Conti).
1724 May-1730 Feb. Benedict XIII (Pietro Francesco Orsini).
1730 July-1740 Feb. Clement XII (Lorenzo Corsini).
1740 Aug.-1758 May Benedict XIV (Prosper Lambertini).
1758 July-1769 Feb. Clement XIII (Carlo Rezzonico).
1769 May-1774 Sept. Clement XIV (Giovanni V. Antonio Ganganelli).
1775 Feb.-1799 Aug. Pius VI (Giovan-Angelo Braschi).
1800 Mar.-1823 Aug. Pius VII (Gregorio Bernabò Chiaramonte).
1823 Sept.-1829 Feb. Leo XII (Annibale della Genga).
1829 Mar.-1830 Nov. Pius VIII (Francesco Xavier Castiglione).
1831 Feb.-1846 June Gregory XVI (Mauro Capellari).
1846 June-1878 Feb. Pius IX (Count Giovanni Maria Mastaï-Ferretti).
1878 Feb.-1903 July Leo XIII (Joachim Pecci).
1903 Aug. Pius X (Giuseppe Sarto).
ELECTORS OF COLOGNE FROM 1463
Date of election
1463 Rupert C. Palatine (48th Abp.).
1480 Hermann IV, son of Lewis I Lgr. of Hesse.
1508 Philip II C. von Daun-Oberstein.
1615 Hermann V C. von Wied, dep. by Paul III 1546, abd. 1547.
1546 Adolphus III C. von Schauenburg.
1556 Antony C. von Schauenburg.
1558 Gebhard I C. von Mansfeld.
1562 Frederick IV C. von Wied, abd. 1567-
1567 Salentin C. von Isenburg, abd. 1577.
1577 Gebhard II Truchsess von Waldburg, married 1583, dep. by Gregory XIII.
1583 Ernest, son of Albert V D. of Bavaria.
1612 Ferdinand, son of William V D. of Bavaria (Coadjutor from 1595).
1650 Maximilian Henry, son of Albert VI D. of Bavaria.
1688 Joseph Clement, son of Ferdinand Maria El. of Bavaria.
1723 Clement Augustus, son of Maximilian II El. of Bavaria.
1761 Maximilian Frederick C. von Königseck-Rothenfels.
1784 Maximilian, son of Emp. Francis I (Coadjutor from 1780).
1801 Antony Victor, son of Emp. Leopold II. Renounced election.
ELECTORS OF MAINZ FROM 1434
Date of election
1434 Dietrich C. of Erbach (54th Abp.).
1459 Diether C. of Isenburg, dep. 1461, aid. 1463.
1461 Adolphus II C. of Nassau.
1475 Diether rest.
1482 D. Albert of Saxony (son of El. Ernest of Saxony; Coadjutor from 1479).
1484 Berthold C. of Henneberg.
1504 Jacob Frhr. von Liebenstein.
1508 Uriel von Gemmingen.
1514 M. Albert of Brandenburg, Abp. of Magdeburg.
1545 Sebastian von Heusenstamm.
1555 Daniel Brendel von Homburg.
1582 Wolfgang von Dalberg.
1601 John Adam von Bicken.
1604 John Schweikhard von Kronberg.
1626 George Frederick von Greiffenklau zu Vollraths.
1629 Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt.
1647 John Philip von Schönborn, Bp. of Würzburg and Worms.
1673 Lothar Frederick von Metternich, Bp. of Speier and Worms (Coadjutor from 1670).
1676 Damián Hartard von der Leyen, Bp. of Worms.
1679 Charles Henry C. von Metternich (Coadjutor from 1670).
1679 Anselm Francis von Ingelheim.
1695 Lothar Francis von Schonborn, Bp. of Bamberg (Coadjutor from 1694).
1729 Francis Lewis C. Palatine of Neuburg, Bp. of Breslau and Worms, translated from Trier (Coadjutor from 1710).
1732 Philip Charles Frhr. von Eltz.
1743 John Frederick Charles C. von Ostein, Bp. of Worms 1756.
1763 Emmerich Joseph Frhr. von Breitbach-Büresheim, Bp. of Worms 1768.
1774 Frederick Charles Joseph Frhr. von Erthal, Bp. of Worms.
1802-3 Charles Theodore Frhr. von Dalberg (Coadjutor from 1787), Chancellor of the Empire 1803-6; Abp. of Ratisbon 1805-17; Primas of the Rheinbund 1806-13 ; G. D. of Frankfort 1810-13 ; † 1817.
ELECTORS OF TRIER FROM 1439
Date of election
1439 James I von Sirk.
1456 John II of Baden.
1503 James II M. of Baden.
1511 Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollraths.
1531 John III von Metzenhausen.
1540 John IV von Hagen.
1547 John V C. von Isenhurg.
1656 John VI von der Leyen.
1567 James III von Eltz.
1581 John VII von Schönenherg.
1600 Lothar von Metternich.
1623 Philip Christopher von Sötern.
1652 Charles Caspar von der Leyen (Coadjutor from 1650).
1676 John Hugo Frhr. von Orsbeck (Coadjutor from 1672).
1711 Charles Joseph D. of Lorraine.
1716 Francis Lewis C. Palatine of Neuburg, translated to Mainz 1729.
1729 Francis George C. von Schönborn.
1756 John Philip Frhr. von Walderdorf.
1768 Clement Wenceslaus, son of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (Augustus III of Poland), abd. 1802.
ARCHBISHOPS OF CANTERBURY FROM 1454
1454-86 Thomas Bourchier (Bp. of Ely) (65th Abp.).
1486-1500 John Morton (Bp. of Ely) (Card. 1493).
1500-3 Henry Dean (Bp. of Salisbury).
1503-32 William Warham (Bp. of London).
1533-56 Thomas Cranmer (Archdeacon of Taunton).
1556-8 Reginald Pole (Card. 1536).
1559-75 Matthew Parker (Dean of Lincoln).
1576-83 Edmund Grindal (Abp. of York).
1583-1604 John Whitgift (Bp. of Worcester).
1604-10 Richard Bancroft (Bp. of London).
1611-33 George Abbot (Bp. of London).
1633-45 William Laud (Bp. of London) (ex. 1645).
1645-60 See vacant.
1660-3 William Juxon (Bp. of London).
1663-77 Gilbert Sheldon (Bp. of London).
1678-91 William Sancroft (Archdeacon of Canterbury).
1691-4 John Tillotson (Dean of Canterbury).
1694-1715 Thomas Tenison (Bp. of Lincoln).
1716-37 William Wake (Bp. of Lincoln).
1737-47 John Potter (Bp. of Oxford).
1747-57 Thomas Herring (Abp. of York).
1757-8 Matthew Button (Abp. of York).
1758-68 Thomas Seeker (Bp. of Oxford).
1768-83 Frederick Cornwallis (Bp. of Lichfield and Coventry and Dean of St Paul's).
1783-1805 John Moore (Bp. of Bangor).
1805-28 Charles Manners-Button (Bp. of Norwich and Dean of Windsor).
1828-48 William Howley (Bp. of London).
1848-62 John Bird Sumner (Bp. of Chester).
1862-8 Charles Thomas Longley (Abp. of York).
1868-82 Archibald Campbell Tait (Bp. of London).
1882-96 Edward White Benson (Bp. of Truro).
1896-1903 Frederick Temple (Bp. of London).
1903 Randall Thomas Davidson (Bp. of Winchester).
ARCHBISHOPS OF YORK FROM 1480
1480-1500 Thomas Rotherham (53rd Abp.).
1501 Thomas Savage.
1508 Christopher Bainbridge.
1514 Thomas Wolsey.
1531 Edward Lee.
1545 Robert Holgate, deprived 1554.
1555 Nicholas Heath, deprived 1559.
1561 Thomas Young.
1570 Edmund Grindal.
1576 Edwin Sandys.
1589 John Piers.
1595 Matthew Hutton.
1606 Tobias Matthew.
1628 George Monteigne.
1628 Samuel Harsnett.
1632 Richard Neile.
1641 John Williams, † 1650.
1650-60 See vacant.
1660 Accepted Frewen.
1664 Richard Sterne.
1683 John Dolben.
1688 Thomas Lamplugh.
1691 John Sharp.
1714 Sir William Dawes Bart.
1724 Lancelot Blackburne.
1743 Thomas Herring.
1747 Matthew Hutton.
1757 John Gilbert.
1761 Robert Hay Drummond.
1777 William Markham.
1807 Edward Harcourt.
1847 Thomas Musgrave.
1860 Charles Thomas Longley.
1862 William Thomson.
1891 William Connor Magee.
1891 William Dalrymple Maclagan, res. 1908.
1908 Cosmo Gordon Lang.
BISHOPS AND ARCHBISHOPS OF PARIS FROM 1473
Date of succession
1473 Louis de Beaumont de la Forêt.
1492 Jean-Simon de Champigny.
1503 Étienne de Poncher.
1619 François de Poncher.
1532 Jean du Bellay, Card.
1551 Eustache du Bellay.
1664 Guillaume Viole.
1568 Pierre de Gondi, Card., resigned 1598, † 1616.
1598 Henri de Gondi, Card, de Retz.
1622 Jean-François de Gondi, Card.
1654 Jean-François-Paul de Gondi, Card, de Retz, resigned 1662, † 1679.
1662 Pierre de Marca.
1664 Harduin de Péréfixe de Beaumont.
167l François de Harlai de Champvallon.
1695 Louis-Antoine de Noailles, Card.
1729 Charles-Gaspar-Guillaume de Vintimille du Luc.
1746 Jacques-Bonne-Gigault de Bellefonds.
1746 Christophe-Beaumont de Répaire.
1781 Antoine-L.-L. Leclerc de Juigné.
1802 Jean-Baptiste du Belloy, Card.
1817 Alexandre-Angélique de Talleyrand Périgord, Card.
1821 Hyacinthe-Louis C. de Quelen.
1840 Denis d'Affre, murd. 1848.
1848 Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour.
1857 François-N.-M. Morlot, Card.
1863 Georges Darboy.
1871 Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, Card.
1886 François-Marie-Benjamin Richard, Card.
1908 Leo Augustus Amette, Card.
GENERALS OF THE ORDER OF JESUS
1. St Ignatius Loyola (Iñigo López de Recalde), † 1556, canonised 1622, founded the Order 1534 (authorised by Paul III 1540).
2. 1556 Father Jacohus Laynez.
3. 1565 St Francis Borgia.
4. 1572 Father Everard Mercurian.
5. 1581 " Claude Aquaviva.
6. 1615 " Mutio Vitelleschi.
7. 1645 " Vincent Caraffa.
8. 1649 " Francis Piccolomini.
9. 1651 " Alexander Gottifredi.
10. 1662 " Goswin Nickel.
11. 1664 " John Paul Oliva.
12. 1681 " Charles de Noyella.
13. 1687 " Thyrsis Gonzalos de Santalla.
14. 1706 " Michael Angelo Tamburini.
15. 1730 " Francis Retz.
16. 1750 " Ignatius Visconti.
17- 1755 " Louis Centurione.
18. 1758 " Lorenzo Ricci († 1775).
1775-1802 Vacancy. Stanislaus Czerniewicz, Gabriel Lienkiewicz, Francis Xavier Kareu Vicars-general.
19. 1802 Father Gabriel Gruber.
20. 1805 " Thaddeus Brzozowski.
21. 1820 " Louis Fortis.
22. 1829 " Jean Roothaan.
23. 1853 " Pierre-Jean Beckx, retired 1884.
24. 1887 " Antoine Anderledy.
25. 1892 " Luis Martin.
[The Order was expelled from France 1594, readmitted 1603, expelled 1764 ; expelled from Venice 1606, Bohemia 1618, Naples 1622, the Indies 1623, Portugal 1769, Spain 1767, readmitted 1818, Russia 1817. It was dissolved by Clement XIV 1773, restored by Pius VII 1814.]
ELECTED KINGS OF POLAND
1574 Henry of Valois (Henry III K. of France).
1575 Stephen Báthory, † 1586 s.p.
1587 Sigismund III (K. of Sweden), † 1632.
1632 Ladislaus VII, son of Sigismund III, † 1648.
1648 John Casimir V, son of Sigismund III, abd. 1668.
1669 Michael Korybut Wisniowiecki, † 1673.
1674 John III Sobieski, † 1696.
1697 Augustus II (El. Frederick Augustus I of Saxony), dep. 1704.
1704 Stanislaus Leszczynski, dep. 1709.
1709 Augustus II, rest., † 1733.
1733 Stanislaus Leszczynski, rest.
1734 Augustus III (El. Frederick Augustus II) son of Augustus II, † 1763.
1764 Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, abd. 1795.
[First Partition of Poland 1772; Second Partition 1793; Third Partition 1795.]
DOGES OF VENICE FROM 1414
Date of election
1414 Tommaso Mocenigo (64th Doge).
1423 Francesco Foscarini.
1457 Pasquale Malipiero.
1462 Cristofero Moro.
1471 Nicole) Trou.
1472 Nicolà Marcello.
1474 Pietro Mocenigo.
1476 Andrea Vendramin.
1478 Giovanni Mocenigo.
1485 Marco Barbarigo.
1486 Agustino Barbarigo.
1501 Leonardo Loredano.
1521 Antonio Grimani.
1523 Andrea Gritti.
1539 Pietro Lando.
1545 Francesco Donato.
1553 Antonio Trevisan.
1554 Francesco Venier.
1556 Lorenzo Priuli.
1559 Girolamo Priuli.
1567 Pietro Loredano.
1570 Alvise Mocenigo I.
1577 Sebastiano Venier.
1578 Nicolö da Ponte.
1585 Pasquale Cicogna.
1595 Marin Grimani.
1606 Leonardo Donato.
1612 Marcantonio Memmo.
1615 Giovanni Bembo.
1618 Nicoló Donato.
1618 Antonio Priuli.
1623 Francesco Contarini.
1624 Giovanni Cornaro.
1630 Nicoló Contarini.
1631 Francesco Erizzo.
1646 Francesco Molin.
1655 Carlo Contarini.
1656 Francesco Cornaro.
1656 Bertucci Valier.
1658 Giovanni Pesaro.
1659 Domenico Contarini.
1675 Nicolò Sagredo.
1676 Alvise Contarini.
1684 Marcantonio Giustinian.
1688 Francesco Morosini.
1694 Silvestre Valier.
1700 Alvise Mocenigo II.
1709 Giovanni Corner,
1722 Alvise Mocenigo III.
1732 Carlo Ruzzini.
1735 Alvise Pisani.
1741 Pietro Grimani.
1752 Francesco Loredano.
1762 Marco Foscarmi.
1763 Alvise Mocenigo IV.
1779 Paolo Eenier.
1789 Ludovico Manin (dep. 1797).
(Venice annexed by Austria.)
[Principal dates of secularisation :
Peace of Westphalia, 1648.
Peace of Lunéville, 1801.
Peace of Pressburg, 1805.
Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, 1806.
Peace of Tilsit, 1807.
Peace of Paris, 1814.
Peace of Vienna, 1815.
Treaty of Prague, 1866.]
Augsburg. 1803 annexed to Bavaria.
Bamberg. 1803 annexed to Bavaria. After introduction of Reformation at B. (1529) Bishops reside at Prunstrut.
Basel. 1792 see declared itself a Republic. 1793 annexed by French Republic. 1803 territory on right bank of Rhine ceded by France to Baden. 1814 territory on left bank assigned to Switzerland.
Brandenburg. Lutheran 1539; territory divided between Elector and local nobility.
Bremen (Bremen-Hamburg) (Archbprc.). Lutheran from 1558. Duchy of Bremen ceded to Sweden 1648 ; 1715 (confirmed, 1719) sold by Denmark to Hanover ; 1866 annexed to Prussia.
Cologne (Archbprc. ). 1801 territory on left bank of Rhine annexed to France, 1815 to Prussia. On right bank of Rhine divided between :
(a) Wied-Runkel (annexed 1806 to Nassau, 1815 to Prussia).
(b) Nassau-Usingen (annexed 1815 to Prussia),
(c) Hesse-Darmstadt (annexed 1815 to Prussia).
(d) Aremberg (annexed 1815 to Prussia).
Constance. 1803 annexed to Baden. Its dependency Conzenberg in 1803 a fief of the Empire, 1806 annexed to Wurtemberg.
Eichstedt. 1803 created a principality for Archd. Ferdinand (as compensation for Tuscany). 1805-6 annexed to Bavaria.
Freisingen. 1803 annexed to Bavaria.
Halberstadt. 1486-1566 united with Magdeburg: 1648 annexed to Brandenburg : 1807 to kingdom of Westphalia ; 1815 to Prussia.
Havelberg. 1548 practically annexed to Brandenburg.
Hildesheim. 1803 annexed to Prussia: 1807 to Westphalia : 1813 to Hanover: 1866 to Prussia.
Liege. 1801 annexed by France : 1815 transferred to Netherlands as principality of Liege.
Lübeck. 1803 annexed to Oldenburg : 1842 to Holstein (in exchange).
Magdeburg (Archbprc.). After 1566 administered by temporal princes of Brandenburg or Saxony. 1648 annexed to Brandenburg on death of D. Augustus of Saxony (took effect 1680).
Mainz (Archbpre.). 1801 territory on left bank of Rhine annexed to France : later, divided between Hesse-Darmstadt and Rhenish Prussia. 1803 the remainder (in exchange for compensatory dominions) ceded by the Imperial Chancellor and divided amongst: Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Nassau-Usingen, Leiningen, Löwenstein-Wertheim, Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur, and Prussia, which in 1866 acquired the shares assigned to Hesse-Cassel and Nassau-Usingen, and a portion of that of Hesse-Darmstadt.
Meissen. Protestant from 1580. Merged in the Meissen Circle and united with Saxony.
Merseburg. Protestant from 1561. Administered by Christian, 3rd son of John George I, El. of Saxony. Saxon principality, united with the Electorate 1738. Ceded to Prussia 1815.
Metz. 1648 formally ceded to France. Secularised in French Revolution. 1871 part of territory ceded to Germany.
Minden. 1648 annexed to Brandenburg : 1807 to Westphalia ; 1810 to the French Empire ; 1813 to Prussia.
Münster. 1719-1803 united with Archbpre. of Cologne ; 1803, and again 1813, to Prussia.
Naumburg-Zeitz. Protestant from 1564. 1662 Saxon principality for Maurice, 4th son of John George I. 1718 united with Electorate. 1815 greater part ceded to Prussia.
Osnabrück. From 1648 the Bishop was alternately Roman Catholic and Protestant ; the latter always of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. 1803 annexed to Hanover: 1806 to Prussia: 1807 to Westphalia: 1810 to the French Empire : 1814 to Hanover : 1866 to Prussia.
Paderborn. 1802 annexed to Prussia : confirmed 1803.
Passau. 1803 Western and lesser portion annexed to Bavaria, Eastern and larger to Electorate of Salzburg, for the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 1805 the whole to Bavaria.
Ratisbon. 1803 secularised and transferred as principality of Ratisbon to the Prince Primas. 1810 transferred to Bavaria.
Ratzeburg. Lutheranised by Bp. Christopher (II) of Mecklenburg (t 1592), afterwards administered by Mecklenburg. 1648 annexed to Mecklenburg.
Salzburg (Archbprc.). 1802 assigned to Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany (except Mühldorf, annexed to Bavaria). 1805 ceded to Austria in exchange for Würzburg. 1809 annexed to Bavaria. 1814 reverts to Austria except portion on left bank of Salza, remaining to Bavaria.
Schwerin. Lutheranised 1530 and from that date administered by princes of Mecklenburg (Schwerin). Annexed to Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1648 as compensation for Wismar.
Speier. 1801 territory on left bank of Rhine (the lesser portion) annexed to France : 1814 to Bavaria. 1803 territory on right bank (the larger portion) annexed to Baden. 1789 outlying dependencies annexed by France, included in Alsace : 1815 part of these ceded to Bavaria. 1871 the remainder annexed by the German Empire (incl. in Elsass-Lothringen).
Strassburg. 1803 territory on right bank of Rhine annexed to Baden (principality of Ettenheim). 1789 territory on left bank (under French sovereignty since 1648) incorporated in Departments of Lower and Upper Alsace. 1871 annexed by German Empire.
Toul. 1648 formally ceded to France. Secularised in French Revolution.
Trent (Archbprc.) and Brixen. From 1511 reckoned as territorially belonging to Tyrol. 1803 annexed to Austria, as compensation for Ortenau, and incorporated with Tyrol.
Trier (Archbprc.). 1794 territory on left bank of the Rhine annexed to France: 1803 to Prussia, except St Wendel, ceded to Coburg till 1834. 1803 territory on right bank annexed to Nassau-Weilburg : 1815 to Prussia, with certain exceptions. 1866 the whole annexed to Prussia.
Verden. 1648 secularised and ceded to Sweden. 1719 sold by Denmark to Hanover.
Verdun. 1648 formally ceded to France. Secularised in French Revolution.
Worms. 1705 district of Reithausen annexed to the Palatinate. 1801 territory on left bank of the Rhine annexed to France: 1814-5 divided between Bavaria and Hesse. 1803 territory on right bank of the Rhine annexed to Hesse-Darmstadt.
Würzburg, (1) 1803 major part annexed to Bavaria in compensation for lost Rhine provinces, as a hereditary principality: 1805 ceded to Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany as compensation for Salzburg. 1815 restored to Bavaria : 1866 small portion in north ceded by Bavaria to Prussia.
(2) 1803 minor part divided between (1) P. of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein: 1806 transferred to Wurtemberg with the rest of Hohenlohe ; (2) P. of Leiningen ; 1806 transferred to Baden ; (3) principality of Aschaffenburg (1810 part of grand duchy of Frankfort) : 1814 transferred to Bavaria with Aschaflenburg; (4) Wurtemberg; (5) Ansbach-Baireuth (Prussian principalities of): 1806 ceded to Bavaria, 1810 to grand duchy of Würzburg, 1814 to Bavaria and Wurtemberg.
Fulda. (Abbey declared exempt bishopric 1752.) 1803-6 ceded in compensation to Nassau-Orange. 1809 to grand duchy of Frankfort. 1810 Herbstein ceded to Hesse-Darmstadt. 1815 the rest to Prussia, but divided between : (1) Prussia, (2) Electoral Hesse (1866 annexed by Prussia), (3) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and (4) Bavaria.
(Dates of assembly, from 1485 ; meetings of Electors (Kurfurstentage) are not enumerated.)
1496 Lindau (removed to Worms).
1512 Trier (removed to Cologne).
1545 Worms (removed to Ratisbon).
From 1663 Diet permanently in session at Ratisbon.
(1806 Dissolution of Empire.)
CONGRESSES AND CONFERENCES
(Dates of opening only are given.)
1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold (Henry VIII and Francis I).
1530 Conference of Bologna (Charles V and Clement VII).
1532 Second Conference of Bologna (Charles V and Clement VII).
1552 Conferences of Linz and Passau.
1562 Conference of St Germain.
1565 Conference of Bayonne.
1594 Conference of Heilbronn.
1600 Conferences of Bergen-op-Zoom and Boulogne.
1609 Conference of the Hague.
1633 Convention of Heilbronn.
1634 Conventions of Frankfort and Worms.
1645 Congress of Westphalia.
1650 Congress of Nürnberg.
1677 Congress of Nymegen.
1697 Congress of Ryswyk.
1710 Conference of Gertruydenberg.
1712 Congress of Utrecht.
1713 Conference of Rastatt.
1714 Congress of Baden.
1724 Congress of Cambrai.
1728 Congress of Soissons.
1748 Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1762 Conferences at Fontainebleau and Hubertusburg.
1790 Congress of Reichenbach.
1791 Conference of Pillnitz.
1794 Congress of St Petersburg.
1797 Congress of Rastatt.
1800 Conference of Lunéville.
1801 Conference of Amiens.
1807 Conference of Tilsit.
1808 Congress of Erfurt.
1814 Conference of Châtillon-sur-Seine.
Conference at Paris.
Congress of Vienna.
Conference of Ghent.
1816 Conference at Paris.
1818 Conference of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1819 Conference of Vienna.
1820 Conference of Troppau.
1821 Conference of Laibach.
1822 Preliminary Conference at Vienna.
Congress of Verona.
1824 Conference of St Petersburg.
1827 Conferences of London.
1849 Conference at Berlin.
Conference of Dresden.
Conference of London.
1856 Conference of Paris.
1871 Conference of London.
1878 Conference of Berlin.
1882 Conference at Tokio.
1886 Conference at Tokio.
1887 First British Colonial Conference.
1889 Conference at Berlin (Samoa question).
First Panamerican Conference at Washington
1899 First Peace Conference at the Hague.
Conference at Washington (Alaska Boundary).
1900 Socialist Congress at Paris.
1905 Conference of Algeciras.
1907 Imperial British Colonial Conference.
Second Peace Conference at the Hague.
1908 International Naval Conference at London.
LEAGUES AND ALLIANCES
1487 Swabian League founded (renewed 1512).
1495 League of the Pope, the Emperor, Spain, Milan, and Venice against France.
1496 Magnus Intercursus. (England and the Netherlands.)
1508 League of Cambrai.
1511 The Holy League.
1512 Alliance of Scotland with France, and of Maximilian I with. Julius II.
1514 Alliance of Henry VIII and Louis XII.
1516 French Concordat with the Papacy.
1521 Alliance of Bruges (Henry VIII, Charles V, and Leo X).
1522 Alliance of Windsor (Henry VIII and Charles V).
1524 Catholic Alliance of Ratisbon.
1526 League of Cognac.
Alliance of Torgau.
1531 League of Schmalkalden.
1533 League of Halle.
1536 Alliance of France and the Porte.
1538 League of Nürnberg.
1546 Alliance of Charles V and Paul III.
1547 League of Princes (against Charles V).
1548 Alliance of Scotland and France.
1551 Habsburg Family Compact.
1553 League of Heidelberg.
1558 Landsberg League.
1571 Triple Alliance (the Pope, Spain, and Venice) against the Turks.
1576 French Catholic League formed.
1577 Union of Brussels.
1578 League between Savoy and Swiss Catholic Cantons.
1579 League of Arras and Union of Utrecht.
1596 Alliance of England, France, and United Provinces.
1607 Franco-Venetian Alliance with the Grisons.
1608 Union of Ahausen.
1609 German Catholic League.
1610 Alliance of Brosolo (France and Savoy against Milan).
1614 League of French Princes.
1633 Alliance of Heilbronn.
1656 Alliance of England and France against Spain.
1658 Confederation of the Rhine.
1661 Defensive alliance of England and Brandenburg.
1666 Quadruple Alliance (United Provinces, Denmark, Brandenburg, and Brunswick-Lüneburg).
1668 Triple Alliance (England, United Provinces, and Sweden) against France.
1670 Secret Alliance between Louis XIV and Charles II.
1683 The Hague Alliance.
1684 The Holy League (the Emperor, Poland, and Venice) against the Turks.
1685 Alliance of Brandenburg and the United Provinces.
1686 Alliance of Brandenburg and the Emperor.
1689 First Grand Alliance.
1699 Alliance of Denmark, Poland, and Russia against Sweden.
1701 Second Grand Alliance.
1707 " Perpetual " Alliance of Sweden and Prussia.
1709 Alliance of Denmark, Poland, and Russia against Sweden.
1715 Alliance of Great Britain, Russia, Denmark, and Prussia against Sweden.
1717 Triple Alliance (France, Great Britain, and United Provinces).
1718 Quadruple Alliance (the same and the Emperor).
1725 First Vienna Alliance (Spain, the Emperor, and the Empire; 1726 joined by Russia).
Alliance of Hanover (Great Britain, France and Prussia ; 1726 joined by United Provinces ; 1727 joined by Sweden and Denmark).
1733 First Bourbon Family Compact.
1743 Alliance of Fontainebleau (Second Bourbon Family Compact).
1744 Secret Alliance between Prussia and France. Union of Frankfort.
1745 Alliance of Austria and Russia.
1746 Alliance of France and Sardinia.
Alliance of Denmark and France.
1756 Convention of Westminster.
Defensive Alliance of Versailles (second Treaty 1757).
1761 Third Bourbon Family Compact.
1767 Confederation of Radom.
1768 Confederation of Bar.
1773 Alliance of France and Sweden.
1778 Alliance of France with the American Colonies ; 1779 joined by Spain ; 1780 by Holland.
1780 First Armed Neutrality.
Alliance of Austria and Russia against the Porte.
1785 The Fürstenbund.
1788 Triple Alliance (Great Britain, United Provinces, and Prussia).
1790 Alliance of Prussia with the Porte, and with Poland.
1792 First Coalition (Prussia and Austria; 1793 joined by Great Britain, Holland, Spain, and the Italian States).
1799 Second Coalition (Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Naples, and the Porte).
1800 Second Armed Neutrality.
1803 Swiss Act of Mediation.
1805 Third Coalition (Great Britain, Austria, and Russia).
1806 Confederation of the Rhine.
1807 Fourth Coalition (Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia).
1812 Secret Alliance between Russia and Sweden.
1813 Alliance between Russia and Prussia.
1814 Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont. Congress of Vienna.
1815 Defensive Triple Alliance of Great Britain, Austria, and France.
Alliance of the Eight Powers.
The Holy Alliance.
Renewal of Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont.
1818 Renewal of Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont.
1833 Secret Alliance of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
1845 The Sonderbund.
1849 The Dreikönigsbündniss (Prussia, Saxony, Hanover) and Union.
1850 The Germanic Confederation revived.
1851 Secret Alliance between Austria and Prussia.
1854 Alliance of Great Britain and France (1855 joined by Sardinia).
1863 Alliance of South American States against Spain.
1866 Alliance of Italy and Prussia.
1872 The Dreikaiserbund (1884 renewed).
1876 Alliance between Servia and Bulgaria.
1879 Secret Defensive Alliance between Germany and Austria.
1882 Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria, and Italy ; renewed quinquennially since).
1895 Alliance between France and Russia.
1902 Alliance between Great Britain and Japan (1905 amplified).
UNIVERSITIES FOUNDED FROM 1450
(The dates are where possible those of foundation. Dates enclosed in ( ) are those of second foundation. The names of universities which have ceased to exist or to hold rank of universities are enclosed in [ ].)
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
Dublin (Trinity College) 1591.
London 1836 (1900).
Manchester, Victoria U., 1880 (1903).
[Ireland, Royal U. of, 1880.]
Wales, Ü. of, 1893.
Belfast, Queen's U. of, 1909.
Ireland, National U. of, 1910.
Graz 1585 (1817).
Budapest 1635 (1769).
Innsbruck 1677 (1826).
Lemberg 1784 (1817).
Copenhagen 1479 (1639 and 1788).
[Rheims 1547. ]
[Imperial University 1808 (University of France).]
[Free Catholic Faculties 1875.]
Marburg 1527 (1650).
Braunsberg 1564 (1818).
[Neustadt (Palatinate) 1578.]
Strassburg 1621 (1872).
Münster 1780 (1902).
Sassari 1620 (1763).
Coimbra (1637) (1772).
Warsaw 1576 (1804).
Kieff 1588 (1833).
St Petersburg 1728 (1819).
Moscow 1755 (1804).
San Jago di Compostella 1532.
Zürich 1521 (1833).